Suspensions, expulsions, zero-tolerance... may reduce local difficulties in the short term but they rarely represent an intelligent response - problems are not really resolved and are likely to recur and to be extended albeit to other places and other times.
Quite often, the natural consequences of a punitive approach far exceed the formal consequences imposed by the punitive system: suspensions become pushouts become an uncompleted education, long term unemployment, poverty... and so on. Yet schools are supposed to be places that nurture intelligence.
Punitive approaches tend take away options from wrong-doers (and from those who have to respond) by placing ongoing constraints on their current and future options. A suspended or expelled student may have few genuine opportunities to learn from their own actions, and to repair the harm they have done.
Punitive policies, such as "three strikes and you are out...", also reduce the capacity of school staff to explore options that will result in a better future for all. That is, such policies even reduce the capacity of staff to act intelligently.
Using punitive approaches the initial harm is rarely repaired and on-going costs are likely to increase. Victims may acquire long lasting bottlenecks (e.g, anxiety...) that are very costly, greatly extend the initial unresolved harm and reduce future options. Without help to repair the harm they have experienced, a seriously bullied student may become a school-refuser and/or do harm to themselves and/or others, all of which reduce the student's future options and life chances. For more, see Compass of Shame.
Using a restorative approach, a wrong-doer is challenged and supported (Social Discipline Window) to
- gain insights into what happened and the thinking involved
- gain insights into the harm that has been done, and to whom
- take steps to repair the harm that has been done (if at all possible) and
- remain in school as a civil and productive student within the school and its community
And a student whose harm has been properly addressed in a restorative way is less likely to experience the shame of being a victim and is thus more likely to have an unimpaired future.
Of the two approaches, being restorative is clearly much more intelligent than being punitive.
[Note: The above thoughts were prompted by the TED Talk by Alex Wissner-Gross: A new equation for intelligence. The talk may not be all that easy to follow at times. However, its value was that it reminded me about the signs of intelligence]